Papillomavirus infection (PVI) – is one of the most common anthroponous virus infections of the modern world. More than 50% of the sexually active population of the world during life is infected with the human papillomavirus. Over the past decade, the number of infected HPVs in the world has increased more than 10 times! The frequency of PVI in children has increased in connection with the transfer of HPV infection from parents to children, with lesions in children and adolescents associated with the same types as in adults, but due to the physiological characteristics and immaturity of the protective mechanisms, children and adolescents are more vulnerable.
Human Papillomavirus (HPV – Human Papillomavirus) is a virus from the genus of papillomaviruses, the family of papovaviruses. It is transmitted only from person to person and leads to a change in the nature of tissue growth.
There are more than 100 types of HPV. Discovered in humans. Of these, more than 40 – can cause damage to the anogenital tract (genitalia and anus) of men and women, and the appearance of genital warts. Some of them are harmless, others cause warts, some cause cancer.
Ways of transmission of the PVI
The main way of infection with anogenital warts (pointed condylomas) is the sexual way of infection (including oral-genital contacts (extremely rare) and anal sex).
Infection with newborn papillomavirus during labor is possible, which is the cause of laryngeal papillomatosis in children and anogenital warts in infants.
It is possible to infect by household means, for example, through a touch. That’s why human papilloma virus has become so widespread – about 30 percent of women are infected and have external manifestations of the virus-genital warts. The human papilloma virus can exist for some time in public places (baths, swimming pools, gyms) and penetrate the human body through abrasions and scratches on the skin. Perhaps self-infection (autoinoculation) with shaving, hair removal.
The incubation period is long: from half a month to several years. For papillomavirus infection is characterized by latent (latent) flow. A person can simultaneously become infected with several types of papillomaviruses. Under the influence of various factors, the activation of the virus, its increased reproduction, and the disease passes into the stage of clinical manifestations.
In most cases (up to 90%) within 6-12 months self-healing occurs, in other cases there is a prolonged chronic recurrent course with possible malignancy of the process (depending on the type of virus).
Papilloma can cause as one virus, and their combination. The clinical picture (i.e. the manifestation of the disease) depends on the place of origin. When there is a localization on the face, there are usually no manifestations, except for a cosmetic defect (for example, a wart on the forehead). If its location is in the urethra or respiratory system, then, respectively, and the manifestations will be in the form of difficulty urinating or disturbing breathing.
Conventionally, all known papillomaviruses can be divided into groups:
Non-oncogenic papillomaviruses (HPV 1,2,3,5).
Oncogenic papillomaviruses of low oncogenic risk (mainly HPV 6,11,42,43,44, 54, 61, 70, 72, 81).
Oncogenic papillomaviruses of average oncogenic risk (mainly HPV 26, 53, 66).
Oncogenic papillomaviruses of high oncogenic risk (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 68)
Diagnosis of papillomavirus infection of female genital organs
According to the characteristic clinical picture (all kinds of warts, genital warts are revealed).
PCI typing with polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Gynecological examination of the cervix in the mirrors.
Oncocytological examination of cervical smears (smear on AK-atypical, precancerous cells).
Colposcopy (examination of the cervix under a special “microscope”, which allows the doctor to examine the area of the vulva, the vagina and the cervix under magnification. The colposcope does not touch the patient.) Colposcopy is not performed during menstruation. 24 hours before colposcopy, the patient should not do douching, use vaginal gels, ointments or tampons, because this may affect the accuracy of the study).
Biopsy and histological examination (if necessary). The study for sexually transmitted diseases (anogenital warts in 90% of cases are associated with other urogenital infections, it is advisable to conduct studies for their presence by PCR.)
Systemic therapy of papillomavirus infection includes:
- destruction and removal of genital warts by various methods (cryodestruction, laser therapy, electrocoagulation, surgical removal);
- antiviral therapy;
- correction of the immune status of the body.
Barrier contraception (condom) today remains the only readily available means of protection against human papillomavirus infection.
We recommend a minimum annual gynecological health check-up for women of the reproductive period, for the prevention, prevention, early detection and treatment of PVI:
- visit to the gynecologist at least 2 times a year;
- smear on oncocytology (AK), PCR examination for PVI and colposcopy at least once a year;
- annual ultrasound examination of pelvic organs.
In our center there are all possibilities for diagnosis and treatment of human papillomavirus (cryodestruction, laser therapy, electrocoagulation, surgical removal).
Dear women, take care of yourself and your health! Find time to be tested prophylactically, and if you are concerned about something, do not postpone the visit to the doctor.